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Volume 37 , Issue 2
March/April 2022

Pages 400406

Extramaxillary Zygomatic Implant Coverage with a Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad Flap Through a Tunnel Approach: A Prospective Case Series

Federico Hernández-Alfaro, MD, DDS, PhD, FEBOMS/Gian Maria Ragucci, DDS, MSc/Adaia Valls-Ontańón, DDS, PhD, FEBOMS/Ali Adnan Hamawandi, DDS, MSc/Jorge Bertos-Quílez, DDS, MSc, PhD

DOI: 10.11607/jomi.9332

Purpose: To describe the benefits of covering the extrasinusal length of extramaxillary zygomatic implants with a pedicled buccal fat pad flap through a tunnel approach. Materials and Methods: Four extramaxillary zygomatic implants were placed in 10 patients and loaded immediately with an acrylic provisional fixed prosthesis. The extrasinusal length of every implant was covered with a pedicled buccal fat pad flap. Study variables were implant survival rate, peri-implant soft tissue recession (PISTR), peri-implant soft tissue condition (PISTC), modified Bleeding Index (mBI), and suppuration. The statistical analysis comprised the Brunner-Langer model of longitudinal data for each variable and the analysis of variance to assess main effects and interactions. Results: All the zygomatic implants showed osseointegration, resulting in a survival rate of 100%. The PISTR was evaluated after surgery (T0) and after 12 months (T1), statistically significant differences being observed (P = .014). Recession also depended on specific implant positioning; zygomatic implants in the anterior were found to have a higher risk of recession vs implants in the posterior (P = .065). The PISTC was assessed at T0 and T1, and no statistically significant changes were observed (P = .718). Bleeding on probing was present in 10% of the implants at T0 and in 15% at T1, the difference being nonsignificant (P = .317). Conclusion: The use of a pedicled buccal fat pad flap to cover the extrasinusal length of extramaxillary zygomatic implants appears to reduce the risk of soft tissue recession and exposure of the implant surface to the oral cavity.

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