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Volume 33 , Issue 6
November/December 2018

Pages 1351–1361

Clinical Outcome of Implants Placed in Staged Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using Bovine Bone Mineral Mixed with Autogenous Bone at Three Different Ratios: A 5-Year Prospective Follow-up Study

Stefan Krennmair, Cand Med/Michael Weinländer, MD, DMD, PhD/Michael Malek, MD, DMD/Thomas Forstner, MSc/Gerald Krennmair, MD, DMD, PhD/Michael Stimmelmayr, DMD, PhD

PMID: 30427967
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.6765

Purpose: To evaluate the 5-year clinical outcomes for implants placed in a staged sinus floor elevation (SFE) procedure and to compare three patient groups with sinus grafts with three different ratios of bovine bone mineral (BBM) and autogenous bone (AB) mixture. Materials and Methods: A 5-year prospective cohort study was conducted on 81 patients with 119 staged SFEs non-randomly distributed to three groups based on the origin of the AB and the mixture ratio with BBM: group 1 (locally harvested AB [LHB] from osteotomy sites + BBM, ratio: 1:10), 31 patients, 37 SFEs; group 2: (LHB + intraorally harvested peripheral AB [IHPB] from retromolar/chin region + BBM, ratio: 1:4), 22 patients, 29 SFEs; and group 3 (LHB + extraorally harvested peripheral AB [EHPB] from iliac crest/tibia + BBM, ratio 1:1), 28 patients, 53 SFEs. After graft healing (5 to 7 months), 284 dental implants (group 1: 76, group 2: 61, group 3: 147 [overall: 2.3 implants/sinus]) were placed. After an additional healing period (5 to 7 months), all implants placed were functionally loaded and prospectively followed by clinical and radiographic evaluations assessing implant survival/success rate as well as peri-implant marginal bone level (MBL) alteration at 1, 3, and 5 years postloading. Results: A total of 76/81 patients with 267/284 implants were followed for up to 5 years (dropouts: 5 patients/15 implants; implant loss = 2). The 5-year implant survival and implant success rate (group 1: 100%/98.6%; group 2: 98.3%/96.6%; group 3: 99.3%/95.7%) did not differ between the three graft mixture groups. The peri-implant marginal bone alteration (reduction) averaged over all 5 years was 1.40 ± 0.29 mm for group 1, 1.41 ± 0.22 mm for group 2, and 1.46 ± 0.46 mm for group 3 (P = .187). However, over time, a continual and significant MBL reduction (P = .045) was noted for all groups presenting peri-implant MBL changes between 1 year and 5 years of –0.17 mm (group 1), –0.12 mm (group 2), and –0.24 mm (group 3), respectively. Conclusion: According to the clinical results obtained, dental implants inserted in grafted (staged) SFE using a mixture of BBM with a minimal amount of AB harvested from local sites provide for similarly high 5-year implant/augmentation success rates as graft mixtures with AB harvested from peripheral intraoral or extraoral donor sites, confirming no need for additional bone harvesting.

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