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Volume 33 , Issue 3
May/June 2018

Pages 645652

Histomorphometric Study of New Bone Formation Comparing Defect Healing with Three Bone Grafting Materials: The Effect of Osteoporosis on Graft Consolidation

Qiao Zhang, DDS, PhD/Dai Jing, DDS, PhD/Yufeng Zhang, DDS, PhD/Richard J. Miron, DDS, MSc, PhD

PMID: 29420674
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.5879

Purpose: Bone grafting materials are frequently utilized in oral surgery and periodontology to fill bone defects and augment lost or missing bone. The purpose of this study was to compare new bone formation in bone defects created in both normal and osteoporotic animals loaded with three types of bone grafts from different origins. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were equally divided into control normal and ovariectomized animals. Bilateral 2.5-mm femur defects were created and filled with an equal weight of (1) natural bone mineral (NBM, BioOss) of bovine origin, (2) demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA, LifeNet), or (3) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP, Vivoss). Following 3 and 6 weeks of healing, hematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining was performed to determine new bone formation, material degradation, and osteoclast activity. Results: All bone substitutes demonstrated osteoconductive potential at 3 and 6 weeks with higher osteoclast numbers observed in all ovariectomized animals. NBM displayed continual new bone formation with little to no sign of particle degradation, even in osteoporotic animals. DFDBA particles showed similar levels of new bone formation but rapid particle degradation rates with lower levels of mineralized tissue. BCP bone grafts demonstrated significantly higher new bone formation when compared with both NBM and DFDBA particles; however, the material was associated with higher osteoclast activity and particle degradation. Interestingly, in osteoporotic animals, BCP displayed synergistically and markedly more rapid rates of particle degradation. Conclusion: Recent modifications to synthetically fabricated materials were shown to be equally or more osteopromotive than NBM and DFDBA. However, the current BCP utilized demonstrated much faster resorption properties in osteoporotic animals associated with a decrease in total bone volume when compared with the slowly/nonresorbing NBM. The results from this study point to the clinical relevance of minimizing fast-resorbing bone grafting materials in osteoporotic phenotypes due to the higher osteoclastic activity and greater material resorption.

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