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Volume 32 , Issue 4
July/August 2017

Pages 759767


Intra- and Postoperative Complications of Lateral Maxillary Sinus Augmentation in Smokers vs Nonsmokers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Samaneh Ghasemi, DDS/Akbar Fotouhi, MD, PhD/Neda Moslemi, DDS, MSc/Zahra Chinipardaz, DDS/Jafar Kolahi, DDS/Mojgan Paknejad, DDS, MSc


PMID: 28334056
DOI: 10.11607/jomi.5364

Purpose: This meta-analysis and systematic review focused on the following question: Does tobacco smoking increase the risk of intra- or postoperative complications of lateral maxillary sinus floor elevation? Materials and Methods: The following electronic databases were searched up to and including November 2015 without language restriction: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Scopus, Sirous, and Doaj. Studies were included if rates of intra-or postoperative complications of sinus floor elevation in smokers and nonsmokers were recorded separately. The following complications were assessed: sinus membrane perforation, bleeding, wound dehiscence, wound infection, sinusitis, hematoma, and oroantral fistula. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme was used to assess the risk of bias in included studies. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to assess the number of each complication in smokers and nonsmokers. Results: Out of 929 eligible publications, 11 articles were included. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed a significantly increased risk of developing wound dehiscence after sinus floor elevation among smokers compared with nonsmokers (Risk Ratio [RR]: 7.82; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.38, 25.74; P = .0007). Moreover, risk of developing wound infection was greater in smokers when prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis (RR: 5.33; 95% CI: 1.34, 21.25; P = .02). However, the meta-analysis of included studies did not show significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers concerning risk of sinus membrane perforation and bleeding during sinus floor elevation (P = .46 and P = .33, respectively). Conclusion: Considering the lack of randomized controlled trials and the small number of included studies, the results indicate that smoking seems to be associated with increased risk of wound dehiscence and infection after the sinus augmentation procedure.


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