Purpose: To determine and compare the effects of tribochemical silica coating and alumina-particle air abrasion on 3 mol% and 5 mol% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP).
Materials and Methods: Two different 3Y-TZP samples (Lava Plus, 3M Oral Care; Ceramill Zolid, Amann Girrbach) and one 5Y-TZP sample (Katana Zirconia UTML, Kuraray Noritake) were prepared and treated with alumina-particle air abrasion and a 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP)-containing self-adhesive composite cement or with tribochemical silica coating followed by silanization (n = 30). Resin columns were cemented onto the treated ceramic surfaces to form specimens. After 24-h water storage or aging with 10,000 thermocycles plus 60-day water storage, shear bond strength (SBS) testing was conducted. Surface roughness, surface Vickers hardness, and crystallographic phase analyses were also performed.
Results: The SBS of tribochemically silica-coated 5Y-TZP before and after aging were 13.8 ± 1.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 MPa, resp., for Lava Plus (3Y-TZP) 14.4 ± 1.4 and 13.9 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively, and for Ceramill Zolid (3Y-TZP) 14.8 ± 1.1 and 13.9 ± 1.5 MPa, respectively. There was no statistical difference between tribochemical silica coating and alumina air abrasion treatments (p = 0.21) on the bonding performance (SBS) of the 3Y-TZPs and 5Y-TZP (p = 0.25) before and after aging (p = 0.50). After alumina air abrasion, 5Y-TZP showed higher surface roughness (Ra = 1.7 ± 0.1) than did the 3Y-TZPs (Ra = 1.2 ± 0.1 for Lava Plus; Ra = 1.2 ± 0.1 for Ceramill Zolid), while the Vickers hardness was similar among the three materials (p = 0.70). Monoclinic zirconia was not detected in 5Y-TZP irrespective of treatment, with the zirconia being mainly cubic phase. However, the 3Y-TZPs were mainly tetragonal phase with some monoclinic zirconia; the latter increased after being alumina-particle air abraded.
Conclusion: The bond strength to 5Y-TZP is similar to those of the 3Y-TZPs under the same bonding strategies. Durable bonding can be achieved both by alumina air abrasion combined with a 10-MDP-containing self-adhesive composite cement and by tribochemical silica coating followed by silanization for both the 3Y-TZPs and 5Y-TZP.