Purpose: To evaluate the effect of different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF) on the contact angle and the resin bond strength durability to feldspathic ceramic.
Materials and Methods: To evaluate the contact angles of distilled water on etched feldspathic ceramic, 25 specimens (12 × 10 × 2.4 mm) of VitaBlocks Mark II were used, divided into 5 groups (n = 5): one unconditioned control (UC) group with no ceramic surface treatment, and 4 other groups that were etched for 60 s with different concentrations of HF: 1% (HF1), 3% (HF3), 5% (HF5) and 10% (HF10). The bond testing utilized 40 ceramic blocks (12 × 10 × 4 mm) that were fabricated and subjected to the same surface treatments as previously mentioned (excluding the control). The etched surfaces were silanized and resin cement was applied. After 24 h, the blocks were sectioned to produce bar specimens that were divided into two groups, non-aged (immediate testing) and aged (storage for 230 days + 12,000 thermocycles at 5°C and 55°C), and subjected to microtensile testing (μTBS). Micromorphogical analysis of the treated surfaces was also performed (atomic force and scanning electron microscopy). One-way ANOVA and Tukeys tests were applied for data analysis.
Results: UC had the highest contact angle (61.4°), whereas HF10 showed the lowest contact angle (17.5°). In non-aged conditions, different acids promoted statistically similar bond strengths (14.2 to 15.7 MPa) (p > 0.05); in terms of bond durability, only the bond strength of the HF1 group presented a statistically significant decrease comparing before and after aging (14.5 to 10.2 MPa).
Conclusion: When etched with 3%, 5%, or 10% hydrofluoric acid, the ceramic tested showed stable resin adhesion after long-term aging.
Keywords: acid etching, porcelain, microtensile bond strength, topographical changes, wettability, contact angle