Purpose: To determine whether universal primers alone can deliver similar levels of adhesion of resin cement to zirconia ceramic when compared to their application in conjunction with airborne-particle abrasion.
Materials and Methods: Sintered zirconia blocks (N = 160) (Lava, 3M ESPE), (5.25 × 5.25 × 3 mm3) were embedded in acrylic resin, polished, and randomly distributed into 16 groups (n = 10 per group), according to the factors universal primer (8 levels) and air-particle abrasion (2 levels): 1. ctr: control, without application of a universal primer; 2. AP: Alloy Primer; 3. MP: Monobond Plus; 4. MZP: Metal Zirconia Primer; 5. MZ: MZ Primer; 6. Sg: Signum Zirconia Bond; 7. SbU: Singlebond Universal; 8. ZP: Z Prime Plus. The universal primers were also used after air abrasion (A) of zirconia to form the following 8 groups: Ctr-A, AP-A, MP-A, MZP-A, MZ-A, Sg-A, SbU-A, and ZP-A. After ultrasonic cleaning, air abrasion was performed using Al2O3 particles (110 μm, 2.5 bar, 20 s at 10 mm) in a chairside air-abrasion device. After ultrasonic cleaning again, universal primers were applied according to each manufacturers recommendation. The resin cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE) was built up incrementally and photopolymerized on the zirconia surface using a silicone mold (Ø = 3.5, height = 3 mm). All specimens were stored in distilled water (60 days at 37°C) and then subjected to shear bond strength testing (SBS) in a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). On a separate set of zirconia specimens, contact angle measurements were made using the sessile drop technique with a goniometer after the application of universal primers on control and air-abraded zirconia surfaces. Data (MPa) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukeys test, and Students t-test (α = 0.05).
Results: When universal primers were used alone, SbU presented significantly higher mean SBS (19.5 ± 5.8) that did the other primers (0 to 9.9 ± 6.6) (p = 0.001). When air abraded, the groups AP-A (14.1 ± 6.1), MP-A (15.9 ± 5.4), ZP-A (16.9 ± 7.3), SG-A (19.1 ± 2.1), SbU-A (12 ± 1.5) showed significant differences (p = 0.03). Adhesive performance of all universal primers was enhanced after air abrasion, with the exception of the SbU and MZ primers. After air abrasion, contact angle measurements were lower for the each primer (without air abrasion: 28.9 to 83.9; with air abrasion: 27.1 to 63.0), except for MZP.
Conclusion: Air abrasion with 110 μm Al2O3 followed by universal primer application increased the bond strength of tested resin cement to zirconia, with the exception of SbU and MZ.
Keywords: adhesion, aluminum oxide, shear bond strength, wettability, yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia