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Volume 31 , Issue 6
November/December 2018

Pages 619626

Mechanical Study of Optimal Implant Position for Maxillary Implant-Supported Overdentures Using Three-Dimensional Simulation Software

Koichiro Kamei, DDS, PhD/Tomoya Gonda, DDS, PhD/Toshihito Takahashi, DDS, PhD/Yoshinobu Maeda, DDS, PhD

PMID: 30192350
DOI: 10.11607/ijp.5759

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal positioning of implants for maxillary implant-supported overdentures (MIODs) using finite element analysis (FEA). Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D) finite element models were built incorporating the maxilla, mucous membrane, removable denture, and artificial teeth using FEA software. Four models were prepared: one without an implant; one with two implants in the region of the lateral incisor; one with two implants in the first premolar region; and one with four implants in the lateral incisor and first premolar regions. Occlusal load was applied to the model, and denture displacement and the distribution of stress in the surrounding bone and mucous membrane were observed and measured. Results: The maximum equivalent stresses to the bone and mucous membrane were highest in the premolar and anterior areas, respectively. Stress to the bone was concentrated around the implants, whereas stress in the mucous membrane was concentrated along the posterior margin. Denture displacement in the anterior direction was highest in the model without implants, while denture displacement in the posterior direction was less affected by the presence of implants. Overall, denture displacement in the four-implant model was smaller than that in the other models. Implant angle affected the stress distribution, with highest stress to the bone when the implant was positioned in a palatal direction and highest stress to the mucous membrane when placed mesially. However, implant angle had little impact on denture displacement, with almost the same stress for implants at all tested angles. Conclusion: Optimal implant position can stabilize overdentures and reduce stress to the bone and mucous membrane. Stress is reduced when implants are inserted in the premolar area and when the direction of the implant is perpendicular to the occlusal plane.

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