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Self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular disorders: Relationship to psychological wellbeing, psychological distress, and oral health-related quality of life

Adrian Ujin Yap, BDS, MSc, PhD, Grad Dip Psychotherapy/Carolina Marpaung, BDS, MDS, PhD/Enrita Dian Rahmadini, BDS, MDS

DOI: 10.11607/ijp.7580

Purpose: To investigate the relationship of self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms with psychologic well-being (PWB), psychologic distress (PD), and oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL). Materials and Methods: The study sample was recruited from a local university using a convenience sampling technique. The Diagnostic Criteria for TMD Symptom Questionnaire (DC/TMD-SQ); Scales of Psychological Well-being-18 (SPWB-18); Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21); and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) were administered electronically to establish TMD symptoms and to assess PWB, PD, and OHRQoL, respectively. Data were analyzed by number/type of TMD symptoms using Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation (α = .05). Results: A total of 602 participants with a mean age of 19.30 ± 1.18 years (84.3% women) were evaluated. Of these, 59.2% reported TMD symptoms, with 10.7% having multiple (≥ 3) features. Pain-related (PT), intra-articular (IT), and combined (CT) TMD symptoms were present in 23.8%, 15.4%, and 20.2% of the cohort, respectively. For both number and type of symptoms, significant differences in SPWB-18 (total, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance), DASS-21 (total/all domains), and OHIP-14 (total/all domains) scores were observed ( P < .05). A moderately strong negative correlation was noted between PWB and PD (rs = –0.55). Conclusion: Participants with no TMD (NT) symptoms had significantly higher PWB than those with two or more TMD symptoms. They also had significantly lower levels of PD and better OHRQoL. Conversely, individuals with PT/CT reported significantly lower PWB compared to those with no symptoms. Moreover, they also had significantly higher levels of PD and poorer OHRQoL than the IT/NT groups.

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