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Influence of dental tissue substructure and dimension on the fracture strength of lithium disilicate and zirconia ceramics

Prof. Dr. Marc Schmitter/Axel Schurig/Mona Simon/Dr. Christian Höhne

DOI: 10.11607/ijp.7451

Purpose: To assess the influence of substructure and dimension on the fracture strength of ceramic discs made from both lithium disilicate ceramic and zirconia. Materials and Methods: A total of 128 intact maxillary third molars were collected, and standardized enamel and dentin discs were fabricated. Lithium disilicate ceramic (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent; n = 64) and zirconia (Katana, Kuraray; n = 64) discs with 0.5-mm (n = 32 IPS and n = 32 Katana) and 1-mm (n = 32 IPS and n = 32 Katana) thickness were produced, and each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 16 each) that were luted to the enamel or dentin discs using Panavia V5 (Kuraray). Half of the specimens in each subgroup were aged (chewing simulation and thermocycling), and all specimens were loaded until fracture in a universal testing machine (Z010, Zwick/Roell). Differences between Katana and IPS with respect to enamel and dentin as substructure and the thickness of the ceramic were analyzed by use of a nonparametric test (Mann-Whitney U test). Results: In un-aged specimens, fracture loads were not significantly (P > .05) different between zirconia and IPS specimens for 1- or 0.5-mm thickness. However, fracture loads were significantly higher (P < .001) in specimens supported by enamel, independent of the ceramic material. In aged specimens, the fracture loads of all specimens were significantly (P < .01) higher when supported by enamel; however, in the 0.5-mm groups, zirconia achieved significantly higher breaking loads than IPS when luted to dentin. Conclusion: When 0.5-mm ceramic discs were luted to dentin, zirconia outperformed IPS with respect to breaking loads.

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