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Perfectionism, self-esteem and body image related to self-perception of orofacial appearance – development and validation of psychometric instrument

Ema Saltovic, DMD/Daniela Kovacevic Pavicic, DMD, PhD, Full Professor/Andrej Pavlic, DMD, PhD/Vlatka Debeljak, DMD, PhD, Associate Professor/Ana Zulijani, DMD/Stjepan Spalj, DMD, PhD, Full Professor


DOI: 10.11607/ijp.7298

Purpose: To develop an instrument for the assessment of perception of orofacial appearance and psychologic issues that can affect peoples’ judgments. Materials and Methods: A panel composed of five members (one psychologist, two prosthodontists, one orthodontist, and one final-year dental student) generated 31 items that could draw specific hypothetical dimensions. The questionnaire was self-administered by individuals attending local high schools and university (N = 261; 26.4% men) in the 14- to 28-year age range. Internal consistency, construct validity, responsiveness, and temporal stability were assessed. Results: Factorial analysis and Cronbach’s alpha identified four dimensions (self-esteem, perfectionism, body image, and smile appearance concern) that could be best fitted by 17 items. Internal consistency was good (α in the 0.70 to 0.80 range). The dimensions were correlated with existing instruments that measure similar constructs. In responsiveness testing, tooth whitening did not induce changes in perfectionism or body image; however, it did increase self-esteem and decreased esthetic concern (P < .05). Conclusion: The newly created questionnaire is a consistent and reliable short instrument that measures psychologic issues related to the perception of orofacial appearance.


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