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Food solutions and cigarette smoke-dependent changes in color and surface texture of CAD/CAM resin composites an in vitro study

Marcel Reymus, Dr med dent/Anja Liebermann, PD Dr med dent, MSc/Sebastian Spintzyk, MSc/Bogna Stawarczyk, PD Dr rer biol hum, Dipl Ing (FH), MSc

DOI: 10.11607/ijp.6950

Purpose: To investigate the discoloration and surface properties of four CAD/CAM composite resins provoked by a variety of food solutions and cigarette smoke. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 specimens (N = 370) were prepared per material (Brilliant Crios [Coltene], CeraSmart [GC], Lava Ultimate [3M Espe], Shofu Block HC [Shofu], and SonicFill 2 [Kerr]). Discoloration (ΔE) was investigated with a spectrophotometer. Measurements were taken before immersion in the storage media for 2 weeks (carrot juice, curry, cigarette smoke, red wine, energy drink, and distilled water), immediately after immersion, and after manual polishing of the specimens following immersion. The mean surface roughness (Ra) was measured using a profilometer. Qualitative surface observation was performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, and one-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests. Results: The highest influence on ΔE after immersion was observed by the storage medium (ηP. = 0.878, P < .001), followed by the interaction between storage medium and material (ηP. = 0.770, P < .001) and the material (ηP. = 0.306, P < .001). For ΔE after polishing, the highest influence was indicated by the interaction of material and medium (ηP. = 0.554, P < .001), followed by the medium (ηP. = 0.244, P < .001) and the material (ηP. = 0.196, P < .001). Immersion in carrot juice led to the highest color change (ΔE: 8.0 to 10.4), whereas the lowest values were recorded in distilled water (ΔE: 2.0 to 2.4). Carrot juice and the energy drink provoked the highest Ra values (0.120 to 0.355 μm). SEM pictures indicated a loss of the organic matrix after manual polishing. Conclusion: The different materials reacted dissimilarly in the various storage media in terms of discoloration. Surface roughness increased after immersion and polishing. Neither discoloration nor surface roughness could be reset to default by manual polishing.

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